TKD and EBSD
Shoji Nishikawa and Seishi
The Diffraction of Cathode Rays by
Proc. Imperial Academy (of Japan) 4 (1928)
The first EBSP was published by S. Nishikawa and S. Kikuchi
in 1928. They directed a beam of 50 keV electrons from a gas
discharge on a cleavage face of calcite at a grazing
incidence of 6°. Diffraction patterns were recorded on
photographic plates placed 6.4 cm behind the crystal, normal
to the primary beam. The patterns consisted of pairs of
parallel black and white lines, and in some cases contained
diffraction spots in addition. They were similar to those
patterns obtained by S. Kikuchi in a transmission experiment
on mica foils (first published in the same volume).
When the photographic plates were placed in front of the
specimen (parallel with the primary beam, as nowadays in
modern "EBSD" setups), the same type of pattern was observed
as well "which must have been produced by the electrons
deflected through an angle greater than 90° ". Since
transmission and backscatter patterns were quite similiar,
they have been likewise interpreted and indexed. The relative
intensities of high-order reflections were compared with
those of X-ray diffraction. Cleavage faces of mica, topaz,
zincblende and a natural face of quartz were also tried and
it was found that they give similar backscatter
The authors called this new type of pattern "P-pattern" or "pattern of the fourth
"black and white lines in pairs due to multiple scattering
and selective reflection"). They have later been named "transmission Kikuchi
patterns" respectively "reflection Kikuchi patterns" or
"backscatter Kikuchi patterns".
The low quality of the first BKP may be caused by specimen
contamination due to the poor vacuum facilities at that
Shoji Nishikawa and Seishi Kikuchi
Diffraction of Cathode Rays by Calcite.
Nature 122 (1928) 726
A short communication in Nature appeared at the end of the
same year where Nishikawa and Kikuchi already reported the
main features of BKP (bands bordered by parallel lines at a
width of twice the Bragg angle; high-order reflections;
center line corresponding to the section line of the lattice
plane with the screen; intensity approximately predicted by
the structure factor; wide-angle diffraction). In the outlook
they anticipate that "the above mentioned method [ today
known as EBSD ] would be more useful than the
transmission method on account of its possibility of
extensive application on many crystals..."
In the following publications Seishi
Kikuchi and Shigeo Nakagawa concentrated their
studies on the deviation of the lines from the
exact Bragg position due to anomalous dispersion of crossing
lines and the effect of the refractive index of the lattice
on fast electrons.
S. Kikuchi and Sh. Nakagawa
On the reflection of cathode rays from single crystal
surfaces. (paper in German)
Sc. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res.
21 (1933) 80-91
S. Kikuchi and Sh. Nakagawa
The anomalous reflection of fast electrons from single
crystal surfaces. (paper in German)
Sc. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res.
21 (1933) 256-265
Already in 1928, Seishi Kikuchi (August 25, 1902 –
November 12, 1974) grew fond
of atomic physics. He published an investigation on the mode
of disintegration of Radium (J.J.Phys. 4(1928) 143.),
met Werner von Heisenberg on his visit to Japan, and joined
for some time Heisenberg's team at the university of Leipzig
(Germany). Back in Japan, starting in 1934 he installed a 600
kV Cockroft-Walton high-voltage generator, the most powerful
at that time, and a charged particle accelerator at the (now)
Osaka University Physical Science Department. Seishi Kikuchi
is known as an outstanding Japanese nuclear physicist.
Diffraction of cathode rays by single crystals. Part
Sc. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. 20 (1932/33)
Kikuchi envelops are reported in
backscatter Kikuchi patterns from cleaved calcspar (calcite,
) at 44 keV.
R. von Meibom and E. Rupp
Wide-angle electron diffraction. (paper in
Z. Physik 82 (1933) 690-696
In backscatter diffraction of fast electrons from rocksalt,
sylvine, fluorspar, diamond, calcspar and quartz crystals,
dark bands (on the photographic negative) have been reported
that are bordered on both sides by (Kikuchi) lines. The bands
were visible through acceptance angles up to 160°. The angle
of beam incidence was varied between 3° and 30°, the beam
voltage from 10 kV to 40 kV. The band width is proportional
Intensity profiles across two typical bands are sketched.
Experiment showed that the bands are formed by backscattered
electrons of virtually the same energy as the primary beam
energy. The center lines of the bands - now called Kikuchi
bands - have been indexed as zone circles sectioning the
cylindrical recording film.
About bands in electron diffraction. (paper in
Physikalische Zeitschrift 38 (1937) 1000-1004
Boersch studied thoroughly - in addition to
transmission - also backscatter Kikuchi patterns (at 20 kV,
about 5° of incidence and up to 162° of acceptance angle)
obtained from cleaved, polished respectively etched NaCl,
KCl, PbS, CaCO3
, quartz, mica, diamond, Cu and Fe
Backscatter Kikuchi patterns obtained from
iron (left) and fluorspar (fluorite) (right, recorded on a
cylindrical film) at 20 kV.
He used flat photographic plates as well
as a cylindrical specimen chamber with a cylindrical film to
produce high-angle Kikuchi patterns. The angular range is
considerably larger than that obtained before in the TEM and
in present SEM appliances. The patterns are remarkably sharp
and rich in detail. The widths of the bands was found, in
agreement with Bragg's law, to be related to the energy of
the incident beam and the interplanar lattice
Boersch has discussed the origin of
Kikuchi lines, dark and bright bands and envelops taking von
Laue's dynamical theory of electron diffraction into
G.I. Finch and H. Wilman
The study of surface structures by electron
Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften 16 (1937)
In this review a collection of excellent backscatter Kikuchi
patterns form a variety of single crystal cleavage faces have
1944 and 1948
Max von Laue
The intensity pattern outside a crystal due to a point source of charged particles inside the crystal was quantitatively explained by von Laue when he solved the problem of bands in patterns as observed by S. Kikuchi. Many examples of observed patterns and the theoretical development can be found in his book "Particle Waves and Their Interferences" (in German). After electrons are inelastically scattered the original spherical wave is considered as a superposition of several Bloch waves inside the crystal, taking appropriate boundary conditions at the crystal surface and absorption by imaginary structure potentials into account to determine the intensity pattern outside.
Max von Laue: Materiewellen und ihre Interferenzen.
Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig K.G., Leipzig 1944; reprint 1948
On the theory of Kikuchi envelops. (paper in
Zeitschrift fuer Physik 124 (1947) 80-104, 154-174;
125 (1948) 27-58, 298-335
The formation of Kikuchi envelops is treated without
using the reciprocity law as well as in a rigorous
wave-dynamical treatment based on the reciprocity law, a one
dimensional and a three dimensional periodic crystal
lattice. A good agreement of both features, surface lattice
envelops and crystal lattice envelops, with experimental
findings has been obtained.
(Remark: Kikuchi envelops can have a
ring shape or a parabolic appearance. Perhaps due to the
similarity with HOLZ rings of spots in transmission
electron diffraction on thin foils, the ring shaped envelops
are sometimes named "HOLZ lines" in recent publications
even in the case of BKD. One should, however, bear in
mind that Kikuchi envelops are definitively an effect of
dynamical rather than kinematical diffraction. The Ewald
construction is a very useful model for illustrating the
formation of diffraction spots, but it is not applicable
for BKD. In particular, there is no coherence between a
primary beam and the diffracted beams.)
On the theory of Kikuchi bands. (paper in German)
Zeitschrift fuer Physik 125 (1948) 225-249
The formation of Kikuchi patterns is treated by using
the reciprocity law and solving the Schroedinger equation for
bound electrons in the three dimensional crystal potential.
This approach of dynamical theory of electron
diffraction leads to a good agreement of the intensity
profile and location of Kikuchi bands with experimental
Kossel patterns in X-ray diffraction closely correspond to Kikuchi patterns in electron diffraction. If they are generated with hard X-rays of for instance higher than 100 keV energy, when X-ray wavelengths are in the range of the wavelengths of electrons in the SEM, the Kossel cones degenerate into almost straight lines so that these Kossel patterns look very similar to Kikuchi patterns.
Download H. Determann
Kikuchi-Bänder mit Röntgenstrahlen. (in German with attached English translation)
Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig 1938, pp. 5-7 .
Gitterquell-Interferenzen harter Röntgen-Bremsstrahlung. (in German).
Annalen der Physik 448 (1953) 381-403
Diffraction of ions, such as protons or He+, by single crystals can as well generate patterns very similar to Kikuchi patterns. They are known as Ion Blocking Patterns.
For details visit www.crystaltexture.com .
...... many publications have appeared since then, for
M.N. Alam, M. Blackman and D.W.
High-angle Kikuchi patterns.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A
221 (1954) 224-242
A cylindrical specimen chamber and camera
have been used to study the high-angle Kikuchi patterns
obtained by reflexion of electrons, of energy 6 to 50 keV,
from the cleavage surfaces of crystals with the sodium
chloride structure. Angles of scattering ranging from 0 to
164° were covered. The relative intensity of the pattern at
different scattering angles was measured using a photographic
technique. The intensity distribution was found to become
less steep as the energy of the incident electrons decreased.
In photographs taken with a large value of the glancing angle
of incidence, defect bands were found, starting near the
shadow edge of the pattern; these changed to excess bands at
higher angles of scattering.
The most striking feature of the results is the remarkable
intensity and clarity at the highest scattering angles of the
pattern produced by crystals such as lead sulphide and
potassium iodide, the constituents of which have a relatively
high elastic scattering cross-section. In marked contrast, a
relatively low intensity and low clarity was found at these
angles for lithium fluoride under the same experimental
conditions. An investigation of the width of Kikuchi bands,
visible over the whole available angular range, showed that
the electrons forming these bands had the same energy as that
of the incident electrons within the experimental error of
10%. A possible mechanism is discussed by means of which
electrons can be diffused through large angles with high
efficiency, relative to small angles, and with relatively
little loss of energy.
J.A. Venables, C.J. Harland
Video camera attached to the SEM. They have coined the
new term "EBSP" (= Electron BackScatter Patterns) for
backscatter Kikuchi patterns..
D. Dingley & Link: 1st commercial
system for the SEM
The user had to identify and locate 3 zone axes on the
screen, then the program calculated the rotation matrix;
feasible for cubic crystal symmetry.
N.-H. Schmidt (Risø; HKL): commercial
The user had to mark interactively 3 or more bands.
N. Krieger Lassen, D. Juul Jensen, K.
Automated indexing using the Hough transform and a
B.L. Adams, S.I. Wright
"OIM": mechanical stage scan; Burns algorithm, Hough
Niels Krieger Lassen (PhD Thesis at Risø
and Univ. Lingby, Denmark)
Thorough investigation of the Hough transform for